11.1 Erkrankungen des Nervensystems


1. The use of aromasticks to help with sleep problems: A patient experience survey.
Dyer J, Cleary L, McNeill S, Ragsdale-Lowe M, Osland C

To document the use of aromasticks to facilitate sleep in a cancer centre in the UK. Sleep disturbance is a common problem amongst patients diagnosed with cancer. Essential oils may be inhaled by means of an aromastick (a personal inhaler device containing essential oils) as a means of improving sleep. A prospective audit of aromasticks given to help facilitate sleep. Sixty-five aromasticks were given out over a 13 week period. 94% of patients reported that they did use their aromastick to help them sleep and 92% reported that they would continue to do so. An improvement of at least one point on a Likert scale measuring sleep quality was shown by 64% of patients following the use of an aromastick. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) and sandalwood (Santalum austrocaladonicum); and frankincense (Boswellia carterii), mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) were the essential oils used in the two blends chosen by patients.

Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2016 Feb;22(0):51-8.
PMID: 26850806 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

2. Effect of Boswellia papyrifera on cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis.
Sedighi B, Pardakhty A, Kamali H, Shafiee K, Hasani BN

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is one of the most crucial disorders among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Since MS is an inflammatory disease and Boswellia papyrifera has anti-inflammatory effects, the influence of B. papyrifera on cognitive impairment in MS patients has been investigated in the present study.

METHODS: In this clinical trial, 80 MS patients who referred to the clinic of Shafa Hospital, Kerman, Iran were selected. Having completed a written consent form, patients with relapsing remitting MS, with no occurrence of a new attack throughout 1 month before the study, with no pregnancy or breastfeeding entered the study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups; then Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) test was carried out. One group received B. papyrifera (capsule 300 mg, twice a day) while the other group received placebo with the same dose for 2 months. After 2 months of treatment, BICAMS was redone and changes were analyzed. The significant change value on the before-after BICAMS points were considered to be 8, 13, and 7 points for the symbol digit modality test (SDMT), the California verbal learning test (CVLT), and the brief visual-spatial memory test revised (BVMT-R), respectively.

RESULTS: The patients' mean age was 36.58 8.50 years. The mean duration of disease was 7.41 4.13 years. About 84.2% (n = 64) of the patients was female. In the BVMT-R, 13 patients (34.2%), who had already taken B. papyrifera, were shown to have significant improvement compared to the placebo group with no improvement (P < 0. 001). About 12 and 8 patients in the treatment and placebo groups in the SDMT, respectively (P = 0.200) and 17 and 12 patients in the treatment and placebo groups in the CVLT, respectively (P = 0.170) had significant change values.

CONCLUSION: B. papyrifera showed significant improvement in visuospatial memory, but had no effect on verbal memory and information processing speed.

Iran J Neurol. 2014 Jul;13(3):149-53.
PMID: 25422734 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

3. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, cross over study to evaluate the analgesic activity of Boswellia serrata in healthy volunteers using mechanical pain model.
Prabhavathi K, Chandra US, Soanker R, Rani PU

OBJECTIVE: Experimental pain models in human healthy volunteers are advantageous for early evaluation of analgesics. All efforts to develop nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which are devoid of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular system effects are still far from achieving a breakthrough. Hence we evaluated the analgesic activity of an ayurvedic drug, Boswellia serrata by using validated human pain models which has shown its analgesic activity both in-vitro and preclinical studies to evaluate the analgesic activity of single oral dose (125 mg, 2 capsules) of Boswellia serrata compared to placebo using mechanical pain model in healthy human subjects.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: After taking written informed consent, twelve healthy subjects were randomized (1:1) to receive single oral dose of Boswellia serrata (Shallaki (®)) 125 mg, 2 capsules or identical placebo in a crossover design. Mechanical pain was assessed using Ugo basile analgesymeter (by Randall Selitto test) at baseline and at 1 hr, 2 hrs and 3 hrs after test drug administration. Pain Threshold force and time and Pain Tolerance force and time were evaluated. Statistical analysis was done by paired t-test.

RESULTS: Twelve healthy volunteers have completed the study. Mean percentage change from baseline in Pain Threshold force and time with Boswellia serrata when compared to placebo had significantly increased [Force: 9.7 ± 11.0 vs 2.9 ± 3.4 (P = 0.05) and time: 9.7 ± 10.7 vs 2.8 ± 3.4 (P = 0.04)] at third hr. Mean Percentage change from baseline in Pain Tolerance force and time with Boswellia serrata when compared to placebo had significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased at 1 hr, 2 hrs and 3 hrs.

CONCLUSION: In the present study, Boswellia serrata significantly increased the Pain Threshold and Pain Tolerance force and time compared to placebo. Both study medications were well tolerated. Further multiple dose studies may be needed to establish the analgesic efficacy of the drug.

Indian J Pharmacol. 2014 Sep-Oct;46(5):475-9.
PMID: 25298573 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

4. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in an Italian cohort of pediatric headache patients: the tip of the iceberg.
Dalla Libera D, Colombo B, Pavan G, Comi G

The use of complementary alternative medicine (CAM) in paediatric populations is considerably increased, especially for pain and chronic conditions, as demonstrated by epidemiological surveys both in Europe and in the USA. In our study, CAM was used in 76 % patients of a cohort of 124 children affected by headache (age 4-16 years; 67 % female; 70 % migraine without aura, 12 % migraine with aura, 18 % tensive headache according to IHS criteria) consecutively recruited at a Pediatric Headache University Center. CAM was used as preventive treatment in 80 % cases. The main reasons for seeking CAM were: the wish of avoiding chronic use of drugs with their related side effects, the desire of an integrated approach, the reported inefficacy of conventional medicine, and a more suitable children disposition to CAM than to pharmacological compound. Female gender, younger age, migraine without aura, parents' higher educational status, maternal use of CAM and other associated chronic conditions, correlated with CAM use (p < 0.05). 73 % patients chose CAM also to treat other diseases (i.e. allergies, colitis, asthma, insomnia, muscle-scheletric disorders and dysmenorrhoea). The most assumed CAM were: herbal remedies (64 %) such as Valeriana, Ginkgo biloba, Boswellia serrata, Vitex agnus-castus, passion flower, Linden tree; vitamins/minerals supplements (40 %) with magnesium, 5-Hydroxytryptophan, vitamin B6 or B12, Multivitamin compounds; Homeopathy (47 %) with Silicea, Ignatia Amara, Pulsatilla, Aconitum, Nux Vomica, Calcarea phosphorica; physical treatment (45 %) such as Ayurvedic massage, shiatsu, osteopathy; yoga (33 %); acupuncture (11 %). CAM-often integrated with conventional care-was auto-prescribed in 30 % of the cases, suggested by non-physician in 22 %, by the General Practitioner in 24 % and by paediatrician in 24 %. Both general practitioners and neurologists were mostly unaware of their patients' CAM use. In conclusion, neurologists should inquire for CAM use and be prepared to learn about CAM therapies or to directly interact with CAM trained experts, in order to coordinate an integrative approach to health, as especially required in paediatric headache patients and their parents. Further studies are required to investigate safety and efficacy of CAM in pediatric headache, as a possible side-medicine to conventional pharmacological approach.

Neurol Sci. 2014 May;35 Suppl 1(0):145-8.
PMID: 24867852 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5. The effect of Boswellia Serrata on neurorecovery following diffuse axonal injury.
Moein P, Abbasi Fard S, Asnaashari A, Baratian H, Barekatain M, Tavakoli N, Moein H

OBJECTIVES: This pilot trial was conducted to establish whether Boswellia Serrata (BS), a traditional herbal medicine, could improve the outcome of patients who have diffuse axonal injury (DAI).

METHODS: In total, 38 patients with pure DAI were enrolled in this 12-week, double-blind, randomized, cross-over study. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo (group A, n = 20) or BS capsules (group B, n = 18) for 6 weeks and then switched to the other intervention for another 6 weeks. The disability rating scale (DRS) was used to assess the outcome at 2-, 6- and 12-weeks post-trauma.

RESULTS: A non-significant trend for improvement of DRS total scores was observed after the use of BS. Regarding the DRS sub-scores, however, there was significant improvement in 'cognitive ability to self-care' during the second 6 weeks in group A on BS compared to an insignificant spontaneous recovery in group B during the same period on placebo. Moreover, both groups experienced a close-to-significant increase in the cognitive function-related items of the DRS during the periods they were on BS. The reported adverse events were all of mild quality and had similar frequency between the groups.

CONCLUSION: These results suggest that BS resin does not significantly affect general outcome, but may enhance the cognitive outcome of patients with DAI.

Brain Inj. 2013;27(12):1454-60.
PMID: 24088189 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

6. Long-term efficacy of Boswellia serrata in four patients with chronic cluster headache.
Lampl C, Haider B, Schweiger C

BACKGROUND: Cluster headache is an extremely severe and debilitating trigemino-autonomic pain syndrome. About 10% of patients with cluster headache manifest a chronic form (CCH).The present case series study aims to evaluate the long-term efficacy of Boswellia serrata (Sallaki H15) on headaches and disturbed sleep in patients with CCH.

CASE RESULTS: In an open-label study, four patients with CCH and disturbed sleep received oral B. serrata.

CONCLUSION: The results provide Class IV evidence that oral B. serrata reduces the intensity and frequency of headaches in patients with CCH.

Cephalalgia. 2012 Jul;32(9):719-22.
PMID: 22767962 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7. Aboriginal uses and management of ethnobotanical species in deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh state in India.
Kala CP

A study on the native uses of ethnobotanical species was carried out in the south Surguja district of Chhattisgarh state in India with the major objective of identifying different food and medicinal plant species and also to understand their ongoing management and conservation. Through questionnaire and personal interviews, a total of 73 ethnobotanical species used by tribal and non-tribal communities were documented, of these 36 species were used in curing different types of diseases and 22 were used as edible food plants. This rich traditional knowledge of local people has an immense potential for pharmacological studies. The outside forces, at present, were mainly blamed to change the traditional system of harvesting and management of ethnobotanical species. The destructive harvesting practices have damaged the existing populations of many ethnobotanical species viz., Asparagus racemosus, Dioscorea bulbifera, Boswellia serrata, Buchnania lanzan, Sterculia urens and Anogeissus latifolia. The sustainable harvesting and management issues of ethnobotanical species are discussed in view of their conservation and management.

J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2009;5(0):20.
PMID: 19653889 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8. [Effects of aroma hand massage on pain, state anxiety and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer].
Chang SY

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aroma hand massage on pain, state anxiety and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer.

METHODS: This study was a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The subjects were 58 hospice patients with terminal cancer who were hospitalized. Twenty eight hospice patients with terminal cancer were assigned to the experimental group (aroma hand massage), and 30 hospice patients with terminal cancer were assigned to the control group (general oil hand massage). As for the experimental treatment, the experimental group went through aroma hand massage on each hand for 5 min for 7 days with blended oil-a mixture of Bergamot, Lavender, and Frankincense in the ratio of 1:1:1, which was diluted 1.5% with sweet almond carrier oil 50 ml. The control group went through general oil hand massage by only sweet almond carrier oil-on each hand for 5 min for 7 days.

RESULTS: The aroma hand massage experimental group showed more significant differences in the changes of pain score (t=-3.52, p=.001) and depression (t=-8.99, p=.000) than the control group.

CONCLUSION: Aroma hand massage had a positive effect on pain and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer.

Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2008 Aug;38(4):493-502.
PMID: 18753801 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]