Extract, 5-Loxin®, Prevents Joint Pain and Cartilage Degeneration in a Rat Model of Osteoarthritis through Inhibition of Inflammatory Responses and Restoration of Matrix Homeostasis.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, progressive joint disease associated with pain, functional impairment, and diminished quality of life in affected individuals. At a societal level, it also has a high economic burden. has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, and analgesic effects. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic potential and possible underlying mechanism of 5-Loxin®, a standardized extract, in a rat model of OA. The OA model was established by the intra-articular injection of 50 L of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) (60 mg/mL). 5-Loxin® was administered orally, and efficacy was evaluated through serum analysis, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), histologic staining, and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Results indicated that administration of 5-Loxin® can relieve OA joint pain through inhibition of both inflammatory processes and cartilage degeneration. In the group of rats treated with 5-Loxin®, the suppression of inflammatory enzymes such as cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) resulted in a significant reduction in the prostaglandin (PG) E and leukotriene (LT) B levels. Moreover, 5-Loxin® ameliorated the deterioration of the main components of the articular extracellular matrix (ECM), such as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and aggrecan, through the downregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). These findings suggest that 5-Loxin® may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of OA.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2022;2022():3067526.
Analysis of the Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Osteoarthritic Potential of Flonat Fast, a Combination of DC. ex Meisn., Roxb., L., Bromelain and Escin (), Evaluated in In Vitro Models of Inflammation Relevant to Osteoarthritis.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disease characterized by inflammation of the synovium, angiogenesis, cartilage degradation, and osteophyte formation. DC. ex Meisn., Roxb., L., Bromelain and Escin () are plants which extracts, together to Bromelain and Escin () are traditionally used in OA. However, their mechanistic role remains unclear. We aimed to investigate whether these bioactives alone or in combination (as in Flonat Fast) can suppress TNF-α-induced inflammation, angiogenesis, and osteophyte formation using two cell models involved in OA: endothelial cells and monocytes. Each plant extract was evaluated for its polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, and toxicity. In endothelial cells and monocytes, expression of genes involved in OA was assessed, functional assays for inflammation and angiogenesis were performed, and impairment of reactive oxygen species production (ROS) was evaluated. Exposure of cells to the bioactives alone and in combination before cytokine stimulation resulted in differential counterregulation of several gene and protein expressions, including those for cyclooxygenases-2, metalloproteinase-9, transforming growth factor β1, and bone morphogenic protein-2. We demonstrated that these bioactives modulated monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells as well as cell migration and endothelial angiogenesis. Consistent with radical scavenging activity in the cell-free system, the bioactives curbed TNF-α-stimulated intracellular ROS production. We confirmed the potential anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic effects of the combination of , , Curcuma, Bromelain, and Escin and provided new mechanistic evidence for their use in OA. However, further clinical studies are needed to evaluate the true clinical utility of these bioactives as supportive, preventive, and therapeutic agents.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2022 Oct;15(10):.
Potential complementary and/or synergistic effects of curcumin and boswellic acids for management of osteoarthritis.
For several thousand years (~4000) and have been used in Aryuvedic medicine for treatment of various illnesses, including asthma, peptic ulcers, and rheumatoid arthritis, all of which are mediated through pathways associated with inflammation and pain. Although the pharmacology of both these natural ingredients is difficult to study because of poor bioavailability, data suggest that both influence gene expression mediated through nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Therefore, the activity of pathways associated with inflammation (including NF-κB and lipoxygenase- and cyclooxygenase-mediated reduction in leukotrienes/prostaglandins) and those involved in matrix degradation and apoptosis are reduced, resulting in a reduction in pain. Additive activity of boswellic acids and curcumin was observed in preclinical models and synergism was suggested in clinical trials for the management of osteoarthritis (OA) pain. Overall, studies of these natural ingredients, alone or in combination, revealed that these extracts relieved pain from OA and other inflammatory conditions. This may present an opportunity to improve patient care by offering alternatives for patients and physicians, and potentially reducing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory or other pharmacologic agent use. Additional research is needed on the effects of curcumin on the microbiome and the influence of intestinal metabolism on the activity of curcuminoids to further enhance formulations to ensure sufficient anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity. This narrative review includes evidence from and preclinical studies, and clinical trials that have evaluated the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of curcumin and boswellic acids individually and in combination for the management of OA pain.
Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2022;14():1759720X221124545.
and Extracts Modulate Different and Complementary Pathways on Human Chondrocytes : Deciphering of a Transcriptomic Study.
(CL) and (BS) extracts are used to relieve osteoarthritis symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate their mechanisms of action at therapeutic plasmatic concentrations on primary human osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes. BS (10-50 μg/ml) and CL (0.4-2 μg/ml corresponding to 1-5 µM of curcumin) were evaluated separately or in combination on primary chondrocytes isolated from 17 OA patients and cultured in alginate beads. Ten patients were used for RNA-sequencing analysis. Proteomic confirmation was performed either by immunoassays in the culture supernatant or by flow cytometry for cell surface markers after 72 h of treatment. Significant gene expression modifications were already observed after 6 h of treatment at the highest dose of CL (2 μg/ml) while BS was significantly effective only after 24 h of treatment irrespective of the concentration tested. The most over-expressed genes by CL were anti-oxidative, detoxifying, and cytoprotective genes involved in the pathway. Down-regulated genes were principally pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Inversely, BS anti-oxidant/detoxifying activities were related to the activation of and PPARα pathways. BS anti-inflammatory effects were associated with the increase in GDF15, decrease in cholesterol cell intake and fatty acid metabolism-involved genes, and down-regulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) activation. Similar to CL, BS down-regulated ADAMTS1, 5, and MMP3, 13 genes expression. The combination of both CL and BS was significantly more effective than CL or BS alone on many genes such as IL-6, CCL2, ADAMTS1, and 5. BS and CL have anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-catabolic activities, suggesting a protective effect of these extracts on cartilage. Even if they share some mechanism of action, the two extracts act mainly on distinct pathways, and with different time courses, justifying their association to treat osteoarthritis.
Front Pharmacol. 2022;13():931914.
The Nutraceuticals as Modern Key to Achieve Erythrocyte Oxidative Stress Fighting in Osteoarthritis.
Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common joint disease, shows an increasing prevalence in the aging population in industrialized countries. OA is characterized by low-grade chronic inflammation, which causes degeneration of all joint tissues, such as articular cartilage, subchondral bone, and synovial membrane, leading to pain and loss of functionality. Erythrocytes, the most abundant blood cells, have as their primary function oxygen transport, which induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. For this reason, the erythrocytes have several mechanisms to counteract ROS injuries, which cause damage to lipids and proteins of the cell membrane. Oxidative stress and inflammation are highly correlated and are both causes of joint disorders. In the synovial fluid and blood of osteoarthritis patients, erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme expression is decreased. To date, OA is a non-curable disease, treated mainly with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids for a prolonged period of time, which cause several side effects; thus, the search for natural remedies with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities is always ongoing. In this review, we analyze several manuscripts describing the effect of traditional remedies, such as , and extracts, in the treatments of OA for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antioxidant activity. The effects of such remedies have been studied both in in vitro and in vivo models, considering both joint cells and erythrocytes.
Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2022 Aug;44(8):3481-3495.
Protective effect of a novel polyherbal formulation on experimentally induced osteoarthritis in a rat model.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a musculoskeletal disorder mainly found in elderly individuals. Modern treatment of OA, like nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid injections, etc., is linked to long-term side effects. We evaluated the anti-osteoarthritic properties of a novel joint health formula (JHF) containing Bisdemethoxycurcumin enriched curcumin, 3-O-Acetyl-11-keto-beta-Boswellic acid-enriched Boswellia, and Ashwagandha in monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced knee OA in rats. Twenty-eight female rats were distributed into four groups: Control, OA, OA + JHF (100 mg/kg), and OA + JHF (200 mg/kg). JHF decreased the right joint diameters but increased the paw area and stride length compared to the OA group with no treatment. JHF significantly reduced the arthritic conditions after four weeks of supplementation (p < 0.05). JHF significantly decreased TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, COMP, and CRP in the serum of osteoarthritic rats (p < 0.0001). We observed reduced lipid peroxidation but increased SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT activities in response to JHF treatment in OA animals. JHF down-regulated MMP-3, COX-2, and LOX-5 and improved the histological structure of the knee joint of osteoarthritic rats. JHF demonstrated a protective effect against osteoarthritis, possibly due to anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity in experimentally induced osteoarthritis in rats, and could be an effective option in the management of OA.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2022 Jul;151():113052.
Bioavailability, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effect of Acetyl Keto Boswellic acid and its combination with methotrexate in an arthritic animal model.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most common disabling chronic progressive autoimmune diseases affecting the adult world population. Boswellia serrata has been a known anti-inflammatory agent since ancient times. Therefore, research on Boswellia extract based on Acetyl Keto Boswellic Acid (AKBA) content evaluating its efficacy and safety is necessary. The study aimed to find a suitable Boswellia extract rich in AKBA to evaluate its bioavailability, anti-inflammatory, and anti-arthritic effect. In addition, the synergistic action of AKBA extract with methotrexate (MTX) was also assessed on an animal model.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2022 Jun;292():115200.
Clinical efficacy of Curcuvet and Boswellic acid combined with conventional nutraceutical product: An aid to canine osteoarthritis.
INTRODUCTION: Osteoarthritis is a progressive degenerative joint disease which is high prevalent in dogs. In the late stage of the disease, it determines chronic neuropathic pain which leads to reduced quality-of-life in affected patients. To date it has not yet been identified a specific treatment, but it has been proved that nutraceutical and dietary supplements may play an important role in controlling inflammation and pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate, by the use of force plate gait analysis, the clinical efficacy of Boswellia and Curcuvet® combined with conventional nutraceutical therapy compared with conventional nutraceutical alone in dogs affected by osteoarthritis.
PLoS One. 2021;16(5):e0252279.
Systems pharmacology-based dissection of mechanisms of Tibetan medicinal compound Ruteng as an effective treatment for collagen-induced arthritis rats.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Compound Ruteng (CRT) is a prescribed formulation based on the theory of Tibetan medicine for the treatment of yellow-water-disease. It is consisted with 7 medicinal material include Boswellia carterii Birdw (named "Ruxiang" in Chinese); Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merr. (named "Kuan-Jin-Teng" in Chinese), Cassia obtusifolia L (named "Jue-Ming-Zi" in Chinese); Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic (named "Huang-Kui-Zi" in Chinese); Terminalia chebula Retz. (named "He-Zi" in Chinese); Lamiophlomis rotata (Benth.) Kudo (named "Du-Yi-Wei" in Chinese) and Pyrethrum tatsienense (Bur. et Franch.) Ling (named "Da-Jian-Ju" in Chinese). They are widely distributed in Tibet area of China and have been used to treat rheumatism, jaundice, and skin diseases for centuries.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 May;272():113953.
Herbal Composition LI73014F2 Alleviates Articular Cartilage Damage and Inflammatory Response in Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Osteoarthritis in Rats.
The aim of this study was to determine the anti-osteoarthritic effects of LI73014F2, which consists of fruit, rhizome, and gum resin in a 2:1:2 ratio, in the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis (OA) rat model. LI73014F2 was orally administered once per day for three weeks. Weight-bearing distribution and arthritis index (AI) were measured once per week to confirm the OA symptoms. Synovial membrane, proteoglycan layer, and cartilage damage were investigated by histological examination, while synovial fluid interleukin-1β level was analyzed using a commercial kit. Levels of pro-inflammatory mediators/cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the cartilage tissues were investigated to confirm the anti-osteoarthritic effects of LI73014F2. LI73014F2 significantly inhibited the MIA-induced increase in OA symptoms, synovial fluid cytokine, cartilage damage, and expression levels of pro-inflammatory mediators/cytokines and MMPs in the articular cartilage. These results suggest that LI73014F2 exerts anti-osteoarthritic effects by regulating inflammatory cytokines and MMPs in MIA-induced OA rats.
Molecules. 2020 Nov;25(22):.
Huoxuezhitong capsule ameliorates MIA-induced osteoarthritis of rats through suppressing PI3K/ Akt/ NF-κB pathway.
Huoxuezhitong capsule (HXZT, activating blood circulation and relieving pain capsule), has been applied for osteoarthritis since 1974. It consists of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F. H. Chen ex C. H., Boswellia sacra, Borneol, Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker, Pyritum. However, the direct effects of HXZT on osteoarthritis and the underlying mechanisms were poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to explore the analgesia effect of HXZT on MIA-induced osteoarthritis rat and the underlying mechanisms. The analgesia and anti-inflammatory effect of HXZT on osteoarthritis in vivo were tested by the arthritis model rats induced by monosodium iodoacetate (MIA).. Mechanistic studies confirmed that HXZT could inhibit the activation of NF-κB and down-regulate the mRNA expression of related inflammatory factors in LPS-induced RAW264.7 and ATDC5 cells. Furtherly, in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells, HXZT could suppress NF-κB via inhibiting PI3K/Akt pathway. Taken together, HXZT capsule could ameliorate MIA-induced osteoarthritis of rats through suppressing PI3K/ Akt/ NF-κB pathway.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2020 Sep;129():110471.
An Anti-Inflammatory Composition of Resin Extracts Alleviates Pain and Protects Cartilage in Monoiodoacetate-Induced Osteoarthritis in Rats.
The boswellic acids, the active compounds in gum resin extract, are potent anti-inflammatory agents and are specific nonredox inhibitors of 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX). Here, we present the anti-osteoarthritis (OA) efficacy of LI13019F1 (also known as Serratrin®), a unique composition containing the acidic and nonacidic fractions of gum resin. This composition strongly inhibited 5-LOX activity with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC) of 43.35 ± 4.90 g/mL. Also, LI13019F1 strongly inhibited the leukotriene B (IC, 7.80 ± 2.40 g/mL) and prostaglandin E (IC, 6.19 ± 0.52 g/mL) productions in human blood-derived cells. Besides, LI13019F1 reduced TNF- production with the IC of 12.38 ± 0.423 g/mL. On average, 1, 2.5, and 5 g/mL doses of LI13019F1 protected 34.62, 47.66, and 62.29% SW1353 human chondrosarcoma cells from IL-1 induced SOX-9 depletion, respectively. Further, a 28-day preclinical proof-of-concept study evaluated the pain relief efficacy of LI13019F1 in monoiodoacetate- (MIA-) induced rats. At the end of the study, 150 and 300 mg/kg doses of LI13019F1 supplemented rats showed significant improvements (55.17 ± 5.81 g ( < 0.05), and 66.22 ± 6.30 g ( < 0.05), respectively, vs. MIA: 31.22 ± 7.15 g) in body-weight-bearing capacities. Concurrently, LI13019F1-150 and LI13019F1-300 rats substantially ( < 0.05) increased the threshold of pain sensitivity to pressure (26.98 ± 2.36 and 28.06 ± 2.72-gram force, respectively; vs. 18.63 ± 5.82 in MIA) and increased ( < 0.05) the latent time to withdraw the paw after a thermal stimulus (23.61 ± 2.73 and 28.18 ± 1.90 sec, respectively; vs. 16.56 ± 1.22 sec. in MIA). Besides, the histological observations on Safranin-O green stained articular cartilage revealed that LI13019F1 also prevented the MIA-induced structural damage of the cartilage and reduced the loss of the extracellular matrix (ECM) components in the experimental rats. In conclusion, the present observations suggest that LI13019F1, a new composition of gum resin extracts, reduces pain and protects articular cartilage from the damaging action of MIA in a rodent model.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2020;2020():7381625.
Anti-osteoarthritic Effects of an Herbal Composition LI73014F2 on Interleukin-1β-induced Primary Human Articular Chondrocytes.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most well-characterized joint diseases and is associated with chondrocyte inflammation, metalloproteinase upregulation and apoptosis. LI73014F2 is a novel composition prepared from aqueous extract of fruit, alcohol extract of rhizome, and extract at 2:1:2 ratio. Earlier studies have shown that LI73014F2 inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activities, and attenuates clinical symptoms in OA subjects. In the present study, we evaluated the protective anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, as well as the underlying mechanisms, of LI73014F2 in interleukin (IL)-1β-induced inflammation in human primary chondrocytes. Human chondrocytes were treated with LI73014F2 (0, 12.5, 25 and 50 μg/mL) in IL-1β (10 ng/mL)-containing chondrocyte growth medium for 24 h. Cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay. The pro-inflammatory mediator, inflammatory cytokines, MMPs, apoptosis-related proteins, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways protein expression levels were detected by western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that LI73014F2 normalized the expressions of COX-2, mPGES-1, PGE, 5-LOX, LTB, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-13, Bax/Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-9 and -3, cleaved PARP, phospho-NF-κB p65 and phospho-p38 MAPK proteins in IL-1β-induced primary human chondrocytes. Moreover, the data suggested that LI73014F2 reduced IL-1β-induced inflammation and apoptosis, at least partially via the inhibition of the NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present findings provide the molecular basis of the anti-OA efficacy of LI73014F2.
Molecules. 2020 Apr;25(9):.
Effect of Boswellia Serrata Extract on Acute Inflammatory Parameters and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Complete Freund's Adjuvant-Induced Animal Model of Rheumatoid Arthritis.
CONTEXT: The worldwide prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is about 1%, whereas in India, it is approximately 0.75%. The current therapy for RA includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs corticosteroids, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and some recently developed biologic agents, but all of these are associated with adverse effects. Some herbal drugs, such as Boswellia serrata, have been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity.
Int J Appl Basic Med Res. 2019;9(2):100-106.
Current status of top 10 nutraceuticals used for Knee Osteoarthritis in India.
Knee Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive degenerative joint disease affecting the quality of life of the elderly population. There is considerable evidence that nutraceuticals from natural herbs may play a significant role in inflammation and joint destruction in OA. We review the current status of some of the commonly used nutraceuticals in Indian market - Boswellia, Aflapin, Chondroitin sulphate, Glucosamine sulphate, Collagen peptide, Curcumin, Fish Oil, Ginger, Green tea, and Rosehip extract. We have summarized their mechanism of action, biological effects, toxicities and efficacy in the management of Knee OA. These supplements have been found to be effective in knee OA in various studies. No serious side effects have been reported for any of these supplements. Overall, our study identifies and support the use of these nutraceuticals to provide symptomatic relief to patients with knee OA and justify their use as an adjunct therapy for the management. More good quality trials are needed to provide definitive answers to questions related to their efficacy and safety for OA prevention and treatment.
J Clin Orthop Trauma. 2018;9(4):338-348.
Natural Products for Promoting Joint Health and Managing Osteoarthritis.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteoarthritis, the most common joint disease, is associated with substantial medical costs, lost productivity, and reduced quality of life. However, available pharmaceutical treatments have limitations in terms of efficacy and long-term safety.
Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2018 Sep;20(11):72.
Micellar solubilisation enhances the antiinflammatory activities of curcumin and boswellic acids in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis.
OBJECTIVE: Native extracts of curcumin and boswellia are known to exert antiinflammatory properties but have poor bioavailability when given orally. Using advanced micellation technology, it has been possible to produce stable solubilisates of these extracts with markedly enhanced bioavailability. In the present study, we compared the chronic antiinflammatory activities of native and micellar curcumin in the rat adjuvant arthritis model, using diclofenac as a reference drug.
Nutrition. 2018 Oct;54():189-196.
Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of methanol extract of the stem bark of Boswellia dalzielii Hutch (Burseraceae) in rats.
Boswellia dalzielii is a tall tree (more than 13 m high) that produces aromatic white flowers. This plant is commonly used in indigenous medicine across Africa against diarrhea, malaria, vomiting, inflammation and arthritis. The present study focuses on the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritis potential of methanol extract of Boswellia dalzielii (BDME). Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in inflammatory models induced by carrageenan, arachidonic acid, histamine, serotonin, prostaglandin and bradykinin. Anti-arthritis activity was measured using complete Freund's adjuvant model. Intracellular and extracellular ROS production and proliferation of T-cells were evaluated using chemiluminescence and liquid scintillation counter techniques, respectively. TNF-α and IL-1β production were assessed using ELISA and MTT assay performed for cytotoxicity. BDME revealed a significant anti-inflammatory effect by preventing the development of edema caused by carrageenan, arachidonic acid, histamine, serotonin, prostaglandin and bradykinin. For anti-arthritic properties of BDME, the results showed a significant reduction of the joint diameter and a decrease in pain in the treated animals. The extract also showed a noticeable systemic effect, maintaining the values of the evaluated parameters close to normal in treated rats with an inhibition of joint destruction as shown in histopathological analysis. Furthermore, BDME exhibited significant inhibition of extracellular and intracellular ROS production. Still, the extract displayed significant inhibitory activity on T-cell proliferation as well as a reduced production of TNF-α and IL-1β. Boswellia dalzielii could be considered as a promising tract in the prevention and/or management of inflammatory diseases.
Inflammopharmacology. 2018 Dec;26(6):1383-1398.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -α plays a crucial role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related bone loss disease. The main mechanism of action of RA induced bone loss is the significant inhibitory effect of TNF-α on osteoblast differentiation. TNF-α inhibits osteoblast differentiation mainly by activating nuclear factor (NF) -κB signaling pathway. Owing to the crucial role of TNF-α and NF-κB in the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation, they are considered as targets for the development of therapeutic drugs. In the present study, we evaluated the NF-κB inhibitor Boswellic acid (BA) and its derivatives in the regulation of osteoblast differentiation and the molecular mechanism. Based on the cell model of TNF-α induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation of MC3T3-E1, the regulatory role of BAs was studied. The result of MTT assay indicated that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -2, TNF-α, or acetyl-11-keto-β-BA (AKBA) impact no significant effect for cell viability of MC3T3-E1. The results of alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction indicated that AKBA blocked TNF-α-induced inhibition of the expression of osteoblast markers, suggesting that AKBA rescued osteoblast differentiation from TNF-α-induced inhibition. Additionally, AKBA stimulated the BMP-2-induced expression of osteoblast markers, suggesting that AKBA promotes osteoblast differentiation directly. The results of western blotting and luciferase assay indicated that N-κB signaling was activated by TNF-α. The overexpression of NF-κB component p65 in MC3T3-E1 was found to attenuate the positive effect of AKBA in osteoblast differentiation, suggesting that AKBA potentiates osteoblast differentiation by inhibiting NF-κB signaling. Collectively, AKBA promotes osteoblast differentiation by inhibiting TNF-α and NF-κB. Our study revealed a new discovery of AKBA in regulating osteoblast differentiation, and demonstrated that AKBA may be a potential anabolic agent in the treatment of RA-derived bone loss disease.
J Craniofac Surg. 2018 Oct;29(7):1996-2002.
A Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Study Demonstrates the Clinical Efficacy of a Novel Herbal Formulation for Relieving Joint Discomfort in Human Subjects with Osteoarthritis of Knee.
LI73014F2 is a novel composition prepared from extracts of Terminalia chebula fruit, Curcuma longa rhizome, and Boswellia serrata gum resin with synergistic benefit in 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibition. This herbal composition with strong anti-5-LOX activity exhibited significant pain relief as indicated through improvements in weight-bearing capacity in a monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis (OA) model of Sprague-Dawley rats. A 90-day randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study evaluates the clinical efficacy and tolerability of LI73014F2 in the management of symptoms of OA of the knee (Clinical Trial Registration No. CTRI/2014/01/004338). Subjects, (n = 105), were randomized into three groups: placebo (n = 35), 200 mg/day of LI73014F2 (n = 35), and 400 mg/day of LI73014F2 (n = 35). All study participants were evaluated for pain and physical function by using standard tools, that is, Visual Analog Scale, Lequesne's Functional Index, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) at the baseline (day 0) and on day 14 ± 3, 30 ± 3, 60 ± 3, and at the end of the study (day 90 ± 3). In addition, routine examinations on biochemical parameters in serum, urine, and hematological parameters were conducted on each visit to assess the safety of the study material. At the end of the trial period, LI73014F2 conferred significant pain relief, improved physical function, and quality of life in OA patients. In conclusion, preclinical and clinical data together strongly suggest that the herbal formulation LI73014F2 is a safe and effective intervention for management of joint discomfort, demonstrating efficacy as early as 14 days.
J Med Food. 2018 May;21(5):511-520.
Which supplements can I recommend to my osteoarthritis patients?
OA is a chronic and disabling joint disease with limited evidence-based pharmacological treatment options available that improve outcomes for patients safely. Faced with few effective pharmacological treatments, the use has grown of dietary supplements and complementary medicines for symptomatic relief among people living with OA. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of existing evidence and recommendations supporting the use of supplements for OA. Systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials investigating oral supplements for treating OA were identified. Limited research evidence supports recommendations for the oral use of Boswellia serrata extract and Pycnogenol, curcumin and methylsulfonylmethane in people with OA despite the poor quality of the available studies. Few studies adequately reported possible adverse effects related to supplementation, although the products were generally recognized as safe. Further high quality trials are needed to improve the strength of evidence to support this recommendation and better guide optimal treatment of people living with OA.
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2018 May;57(suppl_4):iv75-iv87.
Erratum: Terpenoids from the Oleo-Gum-Resin of Boswellia serrata and Their Antiplasmodial Effects In Vitro.
Planta Med. 2017 Oct;83(14-15):E4.
Assessment of toxicity and biochemical mechanisms underlying the insecticidal activity of chemically characterized Boswellia carterii essential oil against insect pest of legume seeds.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the insecticidal activity of chemically characterized Boswellia carterii essential oil (EO) and its mode of action against the pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus. GC-MS analysis depicted α-thujene (69.16%), α-Pinene (7.20) and α-Phellandrene (6.78%) as the major components of test EO. EO exhibited absolute toxicity at 0.10μl/ml air against both C. chinensis and C. maculatus following 24h exposure. EO caused a significant reduction in oviposition and further reproductive development at LC doses (0.050μl/ml to 0.066μl/ml in air). Compared to control, a significant elevation in ROS level accompanied with impairment in enzymatic (SOD and CAT) and non-enzymatic (GSH/GSSH) antioxidant defense system has been observed in EO exposed insect pest. However, EO has no significant effect on in vivo AChE activity. An absolute protection of Vigna radiata seeds samples exposed to EO at LC doses was observed without affecting seed germination. The findings revealed that the B. carterii EO has strong insecticidal potential, hence, it could be recommended as a biorational alternative to synthetic insecticides.
Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2017 Jun;139():17-23.
Brazilian oral herbal medication for osteoarthritis: a systematic review protocol.
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis affects 1 % of the world's population and is the most common cause of musculoskeletal impairment in the elderly. Herbal medications are commonly used in Brazil to manage symptoms associated with osteoarthritis, and some of them are financed by the Brazilian government; however, the effectiveness of most of these agents is uncertain. The aim was to systematically review the efficacy and safety of 13 oral herbal medications used in Brazil for the treatment of osteoarthritis.
Syst Rev. 2016 May;5():86.
Synthesis and biological evaluation of boswellic acid-NSAID hybrid molecules as anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic agents.
Methyl esters of the β-boswellic acid (BA) and 11-keto-β-boswellic acid (KBA) obtained from Boswellia serrata resin were subjected to Steglich esterification with the different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) viz., ibuprofen, naproxen, diclophenac and indomethacin. The novel hybrids of methyl boswellate (5-8) and that of methyl 11-keto boswellate (9-12) were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema model and anti-arthritic activity by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis in Wister albino rat. Significant inhibition on carrageenan-induced paw edema has been observed with 5, 6 and 10 where as in CFA induced rats, hybrids 5, 8, 9 and 12 exhibited pronounced antiarthritic activity. Hybrid molecules 5 and 9 have been found to be more effective in inhibiting in-vivo COX-2 than ibuprofen by itself, thus showing the synergistic effect. Hybrid 5 and 9 tested for in-vitro lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 (LOX/COX-2) inhibitory activity. The studies revealed that both 5 and 9 inhibited COX-2 relatively better than LOX enzyme.
Eur J Med Chem. 2015 Jun;98():170-8.
Co-analgesic therapy for arthroscopic supraspinatus tendon repair pain using a dietary supplement containing Boswellia serrata and Curcuma longa: a prospective randomized placebo-controlled study.
BACKGROUND: The cuff tendon that is most prone to full-thickness rotator cuff tears is the supraspinatus (SSP). Arthroscopic SSP repair ensures good to satisfactory mid- to long-term clinical outcomes. However, the intense postoperative pain reduces rehabilitation compliance and is cause of patient dissatisfaction. Many natural compounds act by inhibiting inflammatory pathways in a similar way to anti-inflammatory drugs
Musculoskelet Surg. 2015 Sep;99 Suppl 1():S43-52.
Development and optimisation of 3-Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid loaded poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid-nanoparticles with enhanced oral bioavailability and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats.
OBJECTIVES: 3-Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA) is a potent anti-inflammatory compound of Boswellia serrata. However, anti-inflammatory activity of AKBA is impeded by poor oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility. In this context, we aimed to develop poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-based nanoparticle formulation of AKBA (AKBA-NPs) in order to improve its oral bioavailability and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats.
J Pharm Pharmacol. 2015 Sep;67(9):1188-97.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic crippling disease, where protein-based tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors show significant relief, but with potentially fatal side effects. A need for a safe, oral, cost-effective small molecule or phyto-pharmaceutical is warranted. BV-9238 is an Ayurvedic poly-herbal formulation containing specialized standardized extracts of Withania somnifera, Boswellia serrata, Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa. The anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of BV-9238 were evaluated for inhibition of TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) production, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated, RAW 264.7, mouse macrophage cell line. BV-9238 reduced TNF-α and NO production, without any cytotoxic effects. Subsequently, the formulation was tested in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) and carrageenan-induced paw edema (CPE) rat animal models. AIA was induced in rats by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant intra-dermally in the paw, and BV-9238 and controls were administered orally for 21 days. Arthritic scores in AIA study and inflamed paw volume in CPE study were significantly reduced upon treatment with BV-9238. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of BV-9238 are due to its inhibition of TNF-α, and NO, and this formulation shows promise as an alternate therapy for inflammatory disorders where TNF-α and NO play important roles.
Phytother Res. 2014 Oct;28(10):1479-85.
Boswellia serrata extract attenuates inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress in collagen induced arthritis.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease which leads to destruction of joints. Current treatment modalities for RA either produce symptomatic relief (NSAIDs) or modify the disease process (DMARDs). Though effective, their use is also limited by their side effects. As a result, the interest in alternative, well tolerated anti-inflammatory remedies has re-emerged. Our aim was to evaluate the antioxidant and antiarthritic activity of Boswellia serrata gum resin extract (BSE) in collagen induced arthritis. Arthritis was induced in male Wistar rats by collagen induced arthritis (CIA) method. BSE was administered at doses of 100 and 200mg/kg body weight once daily for 21 days. The effects of treatment in the rats were assessed by biochemical (articular elastase, MPO, LPO, GSH, catalase, SOD and NO), inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, IFN-γ and PGE2), and histological studies in joints. BSE was effective in bringing significant changes on all the parameters (articular elastase, MPO, LPO, GSH, catalase, SOD and NO) studied. Oral administration of BSE resulted in significantly reduced levels of inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and PGE2), and increased level of IL-10. The protective effects of BSE against RA were also evident from the decrease in arthritis scoring and bone histology. The abilities to inhibit proinflammatory cytokines and modulation of antioxidant status suggest that the protective effect of Boswellia serrata extract on arthritis in rats might be mediated via the modulation of immune system.
Phytomedicine. 2014 May;21(6):847-56.
Oral and topical boswellic acid attenuates mouse osteoarthritis.
OBJECTIVE: Boswellic acid is a plant-derived molecule with putative anti-inflammatory effects. This study was performed to determine whether oral or topical administration of boswellic acid can attenuate joint damage in a mouse model of osteoarthritis (OA).
Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2014 Jan;22(1):128-32.
Disease-modifying effect of anthraquinone prodrug with boswellic acid on collagenase-induced osteoarthritis in Wistar rats.
Diacerein and its active metabolite rhein are promising disease modifying agents for osteoarthritis (OA). Boswellic acid is an active ingredient of Gugglu; a herbal medicine commonly administered in osteoarthritis. Both of them possess excellent anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities. It was thought interesting to conjugate rhein and boswellic acid into a mutual prodrug (DSRB) and evaluate its efficacy on collagenase-induced osteoarthritis in rats wherein the conjugate, rhein, boswellic acid and their physical mixture, were tested based on various parameters. Oral administration of 3.85 mg of rhein, 12.36 mg of boswellic acid and 15.73 mg of DSRB which would release equimolar amounts of rhein and boswellic acid, exhibited significant restoration in rat body weight as compared to the untreated arthritic control group. Increase in knee diameter (mm), due to edema was observed in group injected with collagenase, which reduced significantly with the treatment of conjugate. The hematological parameters (Hb, RBC, WBC and ESR) and biochemical parameters (CRP, SALP, SGOT and SGPT) in the osteoarthritic rats were significantly brought back to normal values on treatment with conjugate. It also showed better anti-ulcer activity than rhein. Further the histopathological studies revealed significant anti-arthritic activity of conjugate when compared with the arthritic control group. In conclusion, the conjugate at the specified dose level of 15.73 mg/kg, p. o. (BID) showed reduction in knee diameter and it could significantly normalize the hematological and biochemical abnormalities in collagenase-induced osteoarthritis in rats. Further the histopathological studies confirmed the additive anti-arthritic effect of DSRB as compared to plain rhein.
Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2013 Aug;12(4):288-95.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of boswellic acid against monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in mice.
Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012 Feb;2(2):128-33.
Antiarthritic activity of a standardized, multiherbal, Ayurvedic formulation containing Boswellia serrata: in vitro studies on knee cartilage from osteoarthritis patients.
A validated in vitro model of cartilage damage and published data were used showing that this model measures the chondroprotective and antiinflammatory effects of different antiarthritic drugs. In this report, this model was used to evaluate the effects of a new antiarthritic Ayurvedic formulation containing Zingiber officinale root, Tinospora cordifolia stem, Phyllanthus emblica fruit and oleoresin of Boswellia serrata. Glucosamine sulphate was used as a positive control in the study. Aqueous extracts of each drug were tested on explant cultures of knee cartilage obtained from osteoarthritis patients undergoing knee replacement surgery. The new formulation caused a sustained and statistically significant inhibition in the release of glycosaminoglycans and aggrecan by cartilage explants from these patients. This formulation also induced a transient antiinflammatory effect as measured by a reduction in the levels of nitric oxide released by explants. Furthermore, the data strongly suggest that oleoresin of B. serrata plays a crucial role in the chondroprotective and antiinflammatory activity of this formulation. In summary, this report provides the first, direct, in vitro biochemical evidence of anti-arthritic activity a new Ayurvedic formulation. This formulation significantly reduced damage of articular knee cartilage from chronic osteoarthritis patients.
Phytother Res. 2011 Sep;25(9):1375-80.
3-Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid loaded-polymeric nanomicelles for topical anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop 3-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA)-loaded polymeric nanomicelles for topical anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity.
J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010 Feb;62(2):273-8.
The aim of this study was to assess the anti-inflammatory efficacy of Boswellia frereana extracts in an in vitro model of cartilage degeneration and determine its potential as a therapy for treating osteoarthritis. Cartilage degradation was induced in vitro by treating explants with 5 ng/ml interleukin1alpha (IL-1alpha) and 10 ng/ml oncostatin M (OSM) over a 28-day period, in the presence or absence of 100 microg/ml B. frereana. Treatment of IL-1alpha/OSM stimulated cartilage explants with B. frereana inhibited the breakdown of the collagenous matrix. B. frereana reduced MMP9 and MMP13 mRNA levels, inhibited MMP9 expression and activation, and significantly reduced the production of nitrite (stable end product of nitric oxide), prostaglandin E2 and cycloxygenase-2. Epi-lupeol was identified as the principal constituent of B. frereana. This is the first report on the novel anti-inflammatory properties of Boswellia frereana in an in vitro model of cartilage degradation. We have demonstrated that B. frereana prevents collagen degradation, and inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and MMPs. Due to its efficacy we propose that B. frereana should be examined further as a potential therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory symptoms associated with arthritis.
Phytother Res. 2010 Jun;24(6):905-12.
Role of Sandhika: a polyherbal formulation on MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells.
Sandhika is a polyherbal formulation, (water soluble fraction of Commiphora mukul, Boswellia serrata, Semecarpus anacardium and Strychnos nux vomica), which has been in clinical use in India for last 20 years. Its modified formulation BHUx has shown specific inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and lipoxygenase (LOX)-15 and has prevented diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. In order to explore the possibility of the use of Sandhika for the management of osteoporosis, we have examined its influence on MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells in presence of lipopolysaccharide (1 microg/ml) in terms of calcium nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase activity. MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells (80% confluence in 6-well plates) were treated with water extract of Sandhika, for 10 days, in the concentration range of 0.5 to 16 mg/ml final concentration, in presence of LPS. Media was changed on every third day and culture supernatant was collected after every change to assess the alkaline phosphatase activity and on the tenth day, cells were washed and stained with "Alizarin S" for visualization of calcium nodules by using Meta Morph software (Universal Imaging, Downingtown, PA). The results showed significant enhancement in calcium nodule formation in the dose dependent manner up to 2 mg/ml, followed by gradual decrease at higher concentrations. This change was accompanied with the increase in the alkaline phosphatase activity in these plates, indicating a potential anabolic effect of this polyherbal formulation on osteoblast-like cells under inflammatory conditions induced by LPS.
Inflammation. 2008 Feb;31(1):1-8.
Boswellic acids and glucosamine show synergistic effect in preclinical anti-inflammatory study in rats.
The present study revealed the synergistic effect of boswellic acid mixture (BA) and glucosamine for anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities in rats. Two studies were conducted, that is, acute anti-inflammatory by carrageenan edema and chronic anti-arthritic by Mycobacterium-induced developing arthritis. Five groups of animals were included in each of the study: the vehicle control, positive control (ibuprofen 100mg/kg), boswellic acids (250 mg/kg), glucosamine (250 mg/kg) and a combination of boswellic acids (125 mg/kg) and glucosamine (125 mg/kg). BA when administered at 250 mg/kg in rats, carrageenan-induced paw edema and Mycobacterium-induced developing arthritis were significantly inhibited. In comparison to boswellic acids, glucosamine when administered at 250 mg/kg showed a mild effect in carrageenan-induced edema and moderate inhibition of paw swelling against developing arthritis. Although the combination of boswellic acids and glucosamine did not affect the acute inflammation to a greater extent yet a significant anti-arthritic activity was observed in rats. In conclusion, a synergistic effect was observed in chronic inflammatory conditions when two chemical entities were administered in combination in preclinical study.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 Jul;17(13):3706-11.
Natural products as a gold mine for arthritis treatment.
Arthritis, an inflammation of the joints, is usually a chronic disease that results from dysregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-1beta) and pro-inflammatory enzymes that mediate the production of prostaglandins (e.g. cyclooxygenase-2) and leukotrienes (e.g. lipooxygenase), together with the expression of adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinases, and hyperproliferation of synovial fibroblasts. All of these factors are regulated by the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB. Thus, agents that suppress the expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, cyclooxygenase-2, lipooxygenase, matrix metalloproteinases or adhesion molecules, or suppress the activation of NF-kappaB, all have potential for the treatment of arthritis. Numerous agents derived from plants can suppress these cell signaling intermediates, including curcumin (from turmeric), resveratrol (red grapes, cranberries and peanuts), tea polyphenols, genistein (soy), quercetin (onions), silymarin (artichoke), guggulsterone (guggul), boswellic acid (salai guggul) and withanolides (ashwagandha). Indeed, several preclinical and clinical studies suggest that these agents have potential for arthritis treatment. Although gold compounds are no longer employed for the treatment of arthritis, the large number of inexpensive natural products that can modulate inflammatory responses, but lack side effects, constitute 'goldmines' for the treatment of arthritis.
Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2007 Jun;7(3):344-51.
Effects of an acetone extract of Boswellia carterii Birdw. (Burseraceae) gum resin on adjuvant-induced arthritis in lewis rats.
Ruxiang (Gummi olibanum), the dried gum resin of Boswellia carterii (BC), has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate pain and inflammation for thousands of years. In this random, blinded study, the anti-arthritic effects of a BC extract were observed and compared to vehicle control in a Lewis rat adjuvant arthritis model (n=8/group). Arthritis was induced by injecting CFA subcutaneously into the base of the tail, and the extract was administered orally (i.g.) for 10 consecutive days beginning on day 16 after the injection. Arthritic scores, paw edema, and the local tissue pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) were assessed. Toxicity and adverse effects of the extract were evaluated. At 0.90 g/kg per day, BC significantly decreased arthritic scores between days 20 and 25 (p<0.05) and reduced paw edema on days 18, 20 and 22 compared to control (p<0.05). It also significantly suppressed local tissue TNF-alpha and IL-1beta (p<0.05). No major adverse effects were observed in animals during the repeated-dose treatment profile although mild fur discoloration was noted. The data show that BC extract has significant anti-arthritic and anti-inflammation effects and suggest that these effects may be mediated via the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Oct;101(1-3):104-9.
Effects of an acetone extract of Boswellia carterii Birdw. (Burseraceae) gum resin on rats with persistent inflammation.
OBJECTIVE: Ruxiang, or Gummi olibanum, an herbal medicine derived from the gum resin of Boswellia carterii Birdw. (BC) of the family Burseraceae, has been used traditionally in China to alleviate pain and reduce inflammation. The present study is an investigation of the effects of a BC extract on persistent hyperalgesia and edema in rats with peripheral inflammation.
J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Apr;11(2):323-31.
Dietary support with Boswellia resin in canine inflammatory joint and spinal disease.
An open multi-centre veterinary clinical trial, comparing conditions before and after treatment with a herbal dietary supplement consisting of a natural resin extract of Boswellia serrata, was conducted by 10 practicing veterinarians in Switzerland. This traditional plant-based supplement is known for its anti-rheumatic and anti-inflammatory properties. 29 dogs with manifestations of chronic joint and spinal disease were enrolled. Osteoarthritis and degenerative conditions were confirmed radiologically in 25 of 29 cases. The resin extract (BSB108, product of Bogar AG) was administered with the regular food at a dose of 400 mg/10 kg body weight once daily for 6 weeks. Already after two weeks of treatment, an overall efficacy of the dietary supplement was evident in 71% of 24 eligible dogs. A statistically significant reduction of severity and resolution of typical clinical signs in individual animals, such as intermittent lameness, local pain and stiff gait, were reported after 6 weeks. Effects of external factors that aggravate lameness, such as "lameness when moving" and "lameness after a long rest" diminished gradually. In 5 dogs, reversible brief episodes of diarrhea and flatulence occurred, but only once was a relationship to the study preparation suspected. Because quality and stability of the resin extract were ensured, these data suggest that a standardized preparation can be recommended as a herbal dietary supplement providing symptomatic support in canine osteoarthritic disease.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2004 Feb;146(2):71-9.
Boswellic acids and protease activities.
The involvement of human leukocyte elastase (HLE) in several inflammatory processes and the reported inhibitory effect of ursolic acid on HLE has prompted the authors to start investigation on the effects of acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA) on serine proteinases including HLE.
Phytomedicine. 1996 May;3(1):75-6.
Anti-inflammatory activity of resins from some species of the plant family Burseraceae.
The anti-inflammatory activities of extracts from the resins of four species of the plant family Burseraceae, Boswellia dalzielli, Boswellia carteri (gum olibanum), Commiphora mukul, and Commiphora incisa, were studied. The aqueous extracts of the resins of B. dalzielli, C. incisa, and C. mukul significantly inhibited both the maximal edema response and the total edema response during 6 h of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The octanordammarane triterpenes, mansumbinone and mansumbinoic acid, isolated from the resin of C. incisa, were separated and tested. Administered prophylactically, mansumbinone proved to be more than 20 times less potent than indomethacin and prednisolone in inhibiting carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. However, the molar potency of mansumbinoic acid was within one order of magnitude of those of indomethacin and prednisolone. The anti-inflammatory action of the acid on the carrageenan-induced edema was dose-related between 1.3 x 10(-5) and 2.5 x 10(-4) mol kg-1 when given before the inflammatory stimulus. The acid was able to reverse an established carrageenan-induced inflammatory response when administered 2 h after induction. Daily administration of mansumbinoic acid at a single dose level (1.5 x 10(-4) mol kg-1) significantly reduced joint swelling in adjuvant arthritis in rats. The results indicated that this compound is worthy of further investigation as an anti-inflammatory drug.
Planta Med. 1993 Feb;59(1):12-6.
A new model employing latex of papaya as an inflammagen has been developed for testing anti-inflammatory activity. The latex (exudate) was harvested from the unripe papaya fruit, which had been dried under vacuum. The latex was then suspended in 0.05 M sodium acetate buffer. This suspension when injected in rat hind paw produced concentration-dependent inflammation. Of the 0.25% of this suspension, 0.1 ml was found ideal for evaluating anti-inflammatory activity of test drugs. This concentration produced 70%-100% inflammation lasting for about 5 hr with a maximum effect at h 3. The test drugs employed were prednisolone, aspirin, indomethacin, phenylbutazone, ibuprofen, piroxicam, chloroquine, levamisole, and a mixture of boswellic acids. For comparison, these drugs were also tested against carrageenan-induced inflammation. All the test drugs--steroidal, aspirin, and non-aspirin-like--showed anti-inflammatory activity against latex-induced inflammation. The activity of chloroquine, levamisole, and boswellic acids was significantly more against latex as compared with that of the carrageenan model. The inflammation caused by latex may be attributed to both its hydrolytic enzymes--papain and chymopapain--and glutathione, the activator of these enzymes. These enzymes seem to act like lysosomal enzymes that are released in inflammatory disease processes which mediate inflammation by stimulating the synthesis of prostaglandins. The papaya latex-induced inflammation model appears to be a sensitive, broad-based, and relevant one likely to prove useful for discovering new and effective drugs against inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis.
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 1992 Aug;28(1):15-9.
Studies on the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans under the influence of new herbal anti-inflammatory agents.
The in vivo effect of an herbal based, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory product, salai guggal, prepared from the gum resin exudate of Boswellia serrata and its active principle "boswellic acids" on glycosaminoglycan metabolism has been studied in male albino rats. The biosynthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, as evaluated by the uptake of [35S]sulfate, and the content of glycosaminoglycans were measured in specimens of skin, liver, kidney and spleen. Statistical analysis of the data obtained with respect to the boswellic acids and salai guggal were compared with those of ketoprofen. A significant reduction in glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis was observed in rats treated with all of the drugs. Glycosaminoglycan content was found to be decreased in the ketoprofen-treated group, whereas that of the boswellic acids or salai guggal treated groups remained unaltered. The catabolism of glycosaminoglycans was followed by estimating the activities of lysosomal glycohydrolases, namely beta-glucuronidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, cathepsin B1, cathepsin B2 and cathepsin D, in tissues and by estimating the urinary excretion and hexosamine and uronic acid. The degradation of glycosaminoglycans was found to be reduced markedly in all drug-treated animals as compared to controls. The potential significance of boswellic acids and salai guggal was discussed in the light of changes in the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans.
Biochem Pharmacol. 1989 Oct;38(20):3527-34.
Anti-arthritic activity of boswellic acids in bovine serum albumin (BSA)-induced arthritis.
The effect of boswellic acids on bovine serum albumin (BSA)-induced arthritis in rabbits was studied. Oral administration of boswellic acids (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day) significantly reduced the population of leucocytes in a BSA-injected knee and changed the electrophoretic pattern of the synovial fluid proteins. The local injection of boswellic acids (5, 10 and 20 mg) into the knee 15 min prior to BSA challenge also significantly reduced the infiltration of leucocytes into the knee joint, reduced the infiltration of leucocytes into the pleural cavity and inhibited the migration of PMN in vitro. The leucocyte-inhibitory activity of boswellic acids was not due to its cytotoxic effect. The boswellic acids did not show any detergent or surfactant properties.
Int J Immunopharmacol. 1989;11(6):647-52.
The effect of new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents on lysosomal stability was studied by determining the activity of beta-glucuronidase, a typical lysosomal enzyme, in various sub-cellular fractions and its release from the lysosome-rich fraction. Adjuvant arthritic animals showed a significant increase in the beta-glucuronidase activity in sub-cellular fractions. The increased rate of the release of beta-glucuronidase from lysosome-rich fraction clearly suggested that arthritic syndrome caused decreased stability of the lysosomes. Administration of boswellic acids or salai-guggal to arthritic animals was found to increase the lysosomal stability by inhibiting the rate of release from lysosome-rich fraction and reducing beta-glucuronidase activity in various sub-cellular fractions. Of the two anti-inflammatory agents tested, salai-guggal was found to afford more therapeutic value than boswellic acids.
Ital J Biochem. 1987;36(4):205-17.
Pharmacological evaluation of alcoholic extract of salai guggal (AESG) has been carried out in experimental animals. AESG displayed marked anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced oedema in rats and mice and dextran oedema in rats. It was equally effective in adrenalectomised rats. In formaldehyde and adjuvant arthritis, AESG produced prominent anti-arthritic activity but no significant effect was observed in cotton pellet-induced granuloma test. It inhibited inflammation induced increase in serum transaminase levels and leucocyte counts but lacked any analgesic or anti-pyretic effects. The gestation period or parturition time in pregnant rats or onset time of castor oil-induced diarrhoea was unaffected by AESG and no significant effect was seen on cardiovascular, respiratory and central nervous system functions. No ulcerogenic effects were found in the rat stomach. The oral and intraperitoneal LD50 was greater than 2 g/Kg in mice and rats.
Agents Actions. 1986 Jun;18(3-4):407-12.