11.3 Atemwegserkrankungen

Asthma bronchiale

Dass Weihrauchprodukte schon immer und auch heute noch in anderen Kulturen, u.a. Ägypten, zur Behandlung von Husten und Verschleimung angewandt werden, kann man dort auf jedem Kräuterbasar erfahren.

Auch beim Asthma bronchiale handelt es sich um eine Krankheit, bei der Leukotrien eine Rolle spielen. Sie bewirken dort Brochokonstriktion und Bildung von zähem Schleim, was besonders die Ausatmung behindert.

asthma1.jpg
aus Gupta et al. 1998

asthma2.jpg
aus Gupta et al. 1998

Publikationen

1. Functional study on Boswellia phytosome as complementary intervention in asthmatic patients.
Ferrara T, De Vincentiis G, Di Pierro F

OBJECTIVE: The combination of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) is recommended for the treatment of patients with mild-to-severe persistent asthma. However, given the lack of definite and safe therapies, complementary or alternative medicines are frequently used by asthmatic patients in combination with standard treatments.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: A group of asthmatic subjects have been enrolled in this multicenter study; after having verified the compliance to their current medical therapy (ICS + LABAs), the subjects have been randomized to receive Casperome® 500 mg/day or no additional treatment for a period of 4 weeks. They were also asked to keep track of the number of inhalations required per day and any adverse events through a daily form.

RESULTS: A total of 32 subjects were enrolled in the study. Subjects receiving Casperome® 500 mg/day in addition to the standard ICS + LABAs treatment showed a decrease in the number of inhalations needed compared to patients who did not receive Casperome® therapy. The treatment was well tolerated and only mild-moderate adverse events were registered.

CONCLUSIONS: The use of Casperome® 500 mg/day is beneficial for asthmatic patients as it helps reduce the need for inhalation therapy with ICS + LABA.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015 Oct;19(19):3757-62.
PMID: 26502867 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2. Holy Saturday asthma.
O'Connor TM, Cusack R, Landers S, Bredin CP

A 61-year-old man complained of cough and dyspnoea after exposure to colophony-containing solder fumes at work. A histamine challenge test confirmed airway hyper-responsiveness, and colophony-challenge demonstrated a 16.7% drop in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), supporting a diagnosis of colophony-induced occupational asthma. At review, the patient presented with cough, dyspnoea and wheeze that occurred acutely when exposed to the fumes from burning incense during Easter Saturday services, necessitating his departure from the church. Inhalation challenge tests using two blends of incense used at his church (Greek and Vatican) led to identical symptoms and a significant reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s 15 min after exposure and PEFRs up to 48 h after exposure, indicating an early and late phase asthmatic reaction. This is the first report of coexistent colophony and incense-induced asthma. The similarities in chemical structures between abietic acid in colophony and boswellic acid in incense suggest a common mechanism.

BMJ Case Rep. 2014;2014(0):0.
PMID: 24626388 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

3. Natural anti-inflammatory products and leukotriene inhibitors as complementary therapy for bronchial asthma.
Houssen ME, Ragab A, Mesbah A, El-Samanoudy AZ, Othman G, Moustafa AF, Badria FA

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of a combination of Boswellia serrata, licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and Tumeric root (Curcuma longa) as natural leukotriene inhibitor, antiinflammatory and antioxidant products respectively in controlling bronchial asthma.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study comprised 63 patients with bronchial asthma that are further subdivided into two groups .Group 1 receiving oral capsule (combined herb) in a soft-gelatin capsule 3 times daily for 4weeks and group 2 receiving placebo. Plasma leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4))(,) nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured and pulmonary function was also assessed in all patients enrolled in the study.

RESULTS: There was a statistically significant decrease in the plasma levels of LTC(4), (MDA), and NO in target therapy group when compared with placebo group.

CONCLUSION: The used extract contained Boswellia serrata, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza has a pronounced effect in the management of bronchial asthma.

Clin Biochem. 2010 Jul;43(10-11):887-90.
PMID: 20430018 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

4. Respiratory and allergic diseases: from upper respiratory tract infections to asthma.
Jaber R

Patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis may benefit from hydration and a diet low in sodium, omega-6 fatty acids, and transfatty acids, but high in omega-3 fatty acids (i.e., fish, almonds, walnuts, pumpkin, and flax seeds), onions, and fruits and vegetables (at least five servings a day). Physicians may need to be more cautious when prescribing antibiotics to children in their first year of life when they are born to families with a history of atopy. More research is needed to establish whether supplementation with probiotics (lactobacillus and bifidobacterium) during the first year of life or after antibiotic use decreases the risk of developing asthma and allergic rhinitis. Despite a theoretic basis for the use of vitamin C supplements in asthmatic patients, the evidence is still equivocal, and long-term studies are needed. The evidence is stronger for exercise-induced asthma, in which the use of vitamin C supplementation at a dosage of 1 to 2 g per day may be helpful. It is also possible that fish oil supplements, administered in a dosage of 1 to 1.2 g of EPA and DHA per day, also may be helpful to some patients with asthma. Long-term studies of fish oil and vitamin C are needed for more definite answers. For the patient interested in incorporating nutritional approaches, vitamin C and fish oils have a safe profile. However, aspirin-sensitive individuals should avoid fish oils, and red blood cell magnesium levels may help in making the decision whether to use additional magnesium supplements. Combination herbal formulas should be used in the treatment of asthma with medical supervision and in collaboration with an experienced herbalist or practitioner of TCM. Safe herbs, such as Boswellia and gingko, may be used singly as adjuncts to a comprehensive plan of care if the patient and practitioner have an interest in trying them while staying alert for drug-herb interactions. No data on the long-term use of these single herbs in asthma exist. For the motivated patient, mind-body interventions such as yoga, hypnosis, and biofeedback-assisted relaxation and breathing exercises are beneficial for stress reduction in general and may be helpful in further controlling asthma. Encouraging parents to learn how to massage their asthmatic children may appeal to some parents and provide benefits for parents and children alike. Acupuncture and chiropractic treatment cannot be recommended at this time, although some patients may derive benefit because of the placebo effect. For patients with allergic rhinitis, there are no good clinical research data on the use of quercetin and vitamin C. Similarly, freeze-dried stinging nettle leaves may be tried, but the applicable research evidence also is poor. Further studies are needed to assess the efficacy of these supplements and herbs. Homeopathic remedies based on extreme dilutions of the allergen may be beneficial in allergic rhinitis but require collaboration with an experienced homeopath. There are no research data on constitutional homeopathic approaches to asthma and allergic rhinitis. Patients with COPD are helped by exercise, pulmonary rehabilitation, and increased caloric protein and fat intake. Vitamin C and n-3 supplements are safe and reasonable; however, studies are needed to establish their efficacy in COPD. On the other hand, there are convincing data in favor of N-acetyl-cysteine supplementation for the patient with COPD at doses ranging between 400 and 1200 mg daily. Red blood cell magnesium levels may guide the use of magnesium replacement. The use of L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 in patients with COPD needs further study. The addition of essential oils to the dietary regimen of patients with chronic bronchitis is worth exploring. Patients with upper respiratory tract infections can expect a shorter duration of symptoms by taking high doses of vitamin C (2 g) with zinc supplements, preferably the nasal zinc gel, at the onset of their symptoms. Adding an herb such as echinacea or Andrographis shortens the duration of the common cold. The one study on Elderberry's use for the flu was encouraging, and the data on the homeopathic remedy Oscillococcinum interesting, but more studies should be performed. Saline washes may be helpful to patients with allergic rhinitis and chronic sinusitis. Patients also may try the German combination (available in the United States) of elderberry, vervain, gentian, primrose, and sorrel that has been tested in randomized clinical trials. Bromelain is safe to try; the trials of bromelain supplementation were promising but were never repeated. The preceding suggestions need to be grounded in a program based on optimal medical management. Patients need to be well educated in the proper medical management of their disease and skilled at monitoring disease stability and progress. Asthmatic patients need to monitor their bronchodilator usage and peak flow meter measurements to step up their medical treatment in a timely manner, if needed. Patients welcome physician guidance when exploring the breadth of treatments available today. A true patient-physician partnership is always empowering to patients who are serious about regaining their function and health.

Prim Care. 2002 Jun;29(2):231-61.
PMID: 12391710 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5. Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with bronchial asthma: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week clinical study.
Gupta I, Gupta V, Parihar A, Gupta S, Lüdtke R, Safayhi H, Ammon HP

The gum resin of Boswellia serrata, known in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine as Salai guggal, contains boswellic acids, which have been shown to inhibit leukotriene biosynthesis. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study forty patients, 23 males and 17 females in the age range of 18 - 75 years having mean duration of illness, bronchial asthma, of 9.58 +/- 6.07 years were treated with a preparation of gum resin of 300 mg thrice daily for a period of 6 weeks. 70% of patients showed improvement of disease as evident by disappearance of physical symptoms and signs such as dyspnoea, rhonchi, number of attacks, increase in FEV subset1, FVC and PEFR as well as decrease in eosinophilic count and ESR. In the control group of 40 patients 16 males and 24 females in the age range of 14-58 years with mean of 32.95 +/- 12.68 were treated with lactose 300 mg thrice daily for 6 weeks. Only 27% of patients in the control group showed improvement. The data show a definite role of gum resin of Boswellia serrata in the treatment of bronchial asthma.

Eur J Med Res. 1998 Nov;3(11):511-4.
PMID: 9810030 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]